Exploring the patterns and determinants of U.S. antidumping actions against Latin American imports, 1980-2004
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This paper presents data on trends in U.S. antidumping filings against Latin America and Caribbean nations since 1980, investigates the economic determinants of these cases, and explores the effects for economies of the region. Of 2438 antidumping cases filed from 1995 to 2003, the U.S. filed 329 cases, 36 of these against Latin America. By way of comparison, 513 cases were filed by Latin American and Caribbean nations, with 113 of these targeting other Latin American countries and 57 cases directed at the U.S. Over the longer period from 1980-2004, the countries of the region were targeted by 150 U.S. antidumping cases, 83 percent of these filed against just four countries: Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, and Argentina. From the perspective of the economic significance of U.S. filings against Latin America, on average a very small share of trade has been subject to successful cases; however, this probably understates the impact of U.S. antidumping policy on Latin American exporters since even unsuccessful cases may have adversely affected them during the period of investigation (and may have disrupted distribution channels even after the conclusion of the case);. Of course, particular countries have occasionally had a significant share of their exports affected by an antidumping case. A statistical examination of the economic determinants of U.S. antidumping filings against Latin America found macroeconomic determinants to play a role in promoting antidumping actions. This suggests that global recessions are likely to lead to a ratcheting up of protectionism to the disadvantage of all countries, but particularly to those in the developing world.